Posted on

Possessive Adjectives

The businessman is driving his car.

Mr Pan is playing with his baby.

This is my wallet.

That is your wallet.

Its shell is green.

That  jug is theirs.

This  clock is ours.

What are the words showing possession in the above pictures?
They are his, her, my, your, its, their and ours.  They are called Possessive Adjectives.

A Possessive Adjective is used to show the object following it belongs to someone or something.

To show that ‘I have a box’ , we can use the possessive adjective ‘my’ .

Example: This is my box.

This shows that the box belongs to me.  The possessive adjective must be followed by a noun.

These are the nouns and their possessive adjectives:

Posted on

Possessive Nouns

Tina’s shoes

Nathan’s car

The cow’s horns

The nouns shown have something belonging to them.  Tina has a pair of shoes, Nathan has a car and the cow has horns.

Do you know what has to be added to those nouns to show that they own those things?

It is the apostrophe ( ‘s ).
So, we have Tina’s shoes, Nathan’s car and the cow’s horns.

These are Possessive Nouns.
The possessive form of a singular (one) noun is made by adding ‘s to it.

The carpenters’ tools

The shopkeepers’ goods

The ostriches’ beaks

Do you know what to add to the plural nouns to change them into the possessive form?
An apostrophe ( ‘ ) is added.
The possessive form of a plural ( two or more ) noun is made by adding to it.

The laces of the shoes.

The corners of the die.

The sleeves of the shirt.

The handle of the basket.

Shoes, shirt, die and basket are non-living things.
How do we show that something belongs to them?
The two words ‘of the‘ are used.
Possessive form of a non-living thing is made by using ‘of the’ .

When a noun has something, we change the noun to its possessive form – by adding ‘s‘, apostrophe or ‘of the‘.

These are some more examples:

Singular nouns:
The farmer has a dog.
That is the farmer’s dog.

The boy has a pen.
This is the boy’s pen.

Plural nouns:
The farmers have dogs.
Here are the farmers’ dogs.

The two boys have pens.
These are the two boys’ pens.

Non-living things
The house has a gate.
That is the gate of the house.

The cars have doors.
Here are the doors of the cars.

Posted on

Personal Pronouns



Look at what Red Riding Hood has said.   She talks about herself, her grandmother and her basket.  The nouns are replaced by ‘I‘ , ‘her‘ , ‘it‘ .  These words are called Personal Pronouns.

Personal Pronouns are words which can take the place of nouns.  They are used so that we will not be using the nouns all the time.

These are personal pronouns.

Posted on

Agreement

The lion is hungry.

Ferry kicks the ball.

They swim in the morning.

In the three sentences, ‘lion’, ‘Ferry’ , and ‘they’ are called the subjects of the sentences.
They can be singular or plural.

“Lion’ and ‘Ferry’ are singular.
The verb ‘is’ and ‘kicks’ are also singular.
‘They’ is plural.
The verb ‘swim’ is also plural.

The use of singular or plural verb must agree with the noun it is used with in the sentence.
singular verb must be used with a singular noun.
plural verb must be used with a plural noun.

The verb is commonly learnt in its plural form – go, come, fly, wash.
To change them into the singular form, we can

add ‘s’

come – comes
run – runs

add ‘es’

go – goes
wash – washes

change ‘y’ to ‘ies’

fly – flies
dry – dries

different words

have – has
are – is


Posted on

Singular and Plural nouns


Look at the picture.
Can you count the number of zebras?
There is only one zebra.

Now, have a look at this picture.
How many zebras are there?
There are many zebras.
To show that there is only one zebra, the word ‘zebra‘ is used.
To show that there is more than one, the word ‘zebras‘ is used.

We use a singular noun like ‘toy‘ to show that there is only one toy (singular).
If there are many toys, we will use the plural form.

There are many different ways to change nouns into their plural form. 
We have looked at all the different types of plural nouns.

By adding -s

ant
bag
cloak
dot
evening
friend
giraffe
manager
orang utan
plum
restaurant
xylophone

ants
bags
cloaks
dots
evenings
friends
girafffes
managers
orang utans
plums
restaurants
xylophones

By adding -es to nouns ending -s, -sh, -ch, -x

class
bush
ostrich
box
glass
fish
watch
fox

classes
bushes
ostriches
boxes
glasses
fishes
watches
foxes

By adding -es to nouns ending in -o

buffalo
potato
mango
mosquito
tomato

buffaloes
potatoes
mangoes
mosquitoes
tomatoes

By adding -s to some nouns ending in -o

kangaroo
zoo

kangaroos
zoos

By adding -y into-ies

lorry
baby
teddy
story
lady
lily
cherry
puppy
fly
nanny

lorries
babies
teddies
stories
ladies
lilies
cherries
puppies
flies
nannies

By adding -s to some nouns ending in -y

monkey
donkey
key
day
ray
toy
way

monkeys
donkeys
keys
days
rays
toys
ways

By changing -f or -fe into -ves

loaf
half
leaf
knife
life
shelf
elf
calf

loaves
halves
leaves
knives
lives
shelves
elves
calves

By changing -s to some nouns ending in -f

chief
cliff

chiefs
cliffs

In other ways

fireman
ox
child
louse
tooth
goose
foot
woman

firemen
oxen
children
lice
teeth
geese
feet
women

Posted on

Gender




The pictures above show nouns to describe both the male and the female sex.
Some nouns are of the male sex, some are of the female sex.
Which is which?

Man, bull, cock and prince are of the male sex. They are part of the masculine gender.

Woman, cow, hen and princess are of the female sex. They are part of the feminine gender.

Masculine gender is the male form of nouns.
Feminine gender is the female form of nouns.

These are some examples:

Masculine

actor
brother
dog
drake
fireman
gander
grandfather
husband
king
lion
master
sir
son
tiger
waiter
uncle
nephew

Feminine

actress
sister
bitch
duck
firewoman
goose
grandmother
wife
queen
lioness
mistress
madam
daughter
tigress
waitress
aunt
niece

Posted on

Some and Any

We have learnt that nouns can be countable and uncountable. The words ‘some’ and ‘any’ can be used with countable or uncountable nouns.

There are some children, some sand and some balls.

There are not any children, any sand or any  balls.

Some‘ is used when the sentence means ‘yes’.

Any‘ is used when the sentence means ‘no’.

Any‘ is also used in questions.

Click here for all Grammar worksheets.

Posted on

A, An, The

Picture 1

Picture 2

A‘ and ‘an‘ are used when we speak of a countable object for the first time.

Look at the picture 1.
We can see a pen, a laptop, a spade and a book

Picture 2 shows nouns which go with ‘an’. We use ‘an’ for words beginning with vowel sounds.
We have an orange, an egg, an umbrella and an elephant.

Picture 3

A kangaroo was here just now.
The kangaroo has a joey.

Picture 4

The sun is shining.

Look at Picture 3.
We use ‘a‘ in front of ‘kangaroo’ in the first sentence.
In the second sentence, we use ‘the‘ in front.
The‘ is used when we want to speak of the same thing again.

Look at Picture 4.
We use ‘the‘ before ‘sun’. Why is this so?
We use ‘the‘ as there is only one sun.
The‘ is also used when there is only one such object.

Get Grammar worksheets here.

Posted on

Countable & Uncountable Nouns

Group A

Group B

In group A, we can see that there are some nails, sharks, roses and a table.
How many of each are there?

We can count them, therefore they are known as countable nouns.
For singular (one) countable noun, we use ‘a’ or ‘an’. We use ‘an’ only for nouns that begin with vowel sounds (a, e, i, o, u).
Example:
This is a dog.
That is an egg.

For plural (two or more) countable nouns, we use ‘many’ and ‘a few’.
Example:
There are many boys.
A few books are on the table.

Now, look at group B.

Are flour, salt and milk countable? No, therefore they are called uncountable nouns.

For singular (one) uncountable noun, we do not use ‘a’ or ‘an’.
Example: There is water.

For plural (two or more) uncountable noun, we use ‘much’ and ‘a little’.

Example:
There is much milk.
There is little food.

More examples of countable and uncountable nouns.

Countable Nouns

dog, cat, boy, house, pen, book, cup, fork, hand, leg, finger, chair, cow, bird, car, library, building, hand, head, toe.

Uncountable Nouns

water, sand, food, mud, ink, milk, money, honey, bread, air, jam, fire, oil, magic, cream, light, butter, flour, powder

Posted on

Nouns

The following are pictures of animals, people, places and things.  Do you know their names?

Animal

People

Place

Thing

The animal shown is a bear. 
The people are father, mother, daughter and son. 
The place is a house.
The thing is a xylophone.

These are known as nouns.

Nouns are words we use to name things, places, plants, animals, names and people.

The words ‘things’, ‘places’, ‘plants’, ‘animals’ and ‘people’ are also nouns.
The following are some examples of nouns.

Things: pen, pencil, book, bag, paper, ship, plane, car, music, piano, cup, plate, fork, spoon, watch, shoes, socks, shirt, dress, purse, wallet, water, food, rice, noodles, bed, cupboard, toy and doll.

Places: school, classroom, house, home, room, office, shopping centre, beach, field, housing areas, park, city and country.

Plants: tree, grass, rose, flower, fruit, apple and orange.

Animals: cat, rat, dog, tiger, lion, fish, snail, bird, cow and snake.

Names: Andy, Jenny, Smith, Jones and Henry.

People: boy, girl, man, woman, baby, teacher, pupil, doctor, postman, mother, father, brother, sister, uncle and aunt.

Check here for all grammar worksheets.